Defeating State-of-the-Art White-Box Countermeasures with Advanced Gray-Box Attacks


  • Louis Goubin Université Paris-Saclay, UVSQ, CNRS, Laboratoire de Mathématiques de Versailles, Versailles, France
  • Matthieu Rivain CryptoExperts, Paris, France
  • Junwei Wang CryptoExperts, Paris, France; University of Luxembourg, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg; University of Paris 8, Saint-Denis, France



white-box cryptography, linear masking, non-linear masking, shuffling, data-dependency


The goal of white-box cryptography is to protect secret keys embedded in a cryptographic software deployed in an untrusted environment. In this article, we revisit state-of-the-art countermeasures employed in white-box cryptography, and we discuss possible ways to combine them. Then we analyze the different gray-box attack paths and study their performances in terms of required traces and computation time. Afterward, we propose a new paradigm for the gray-box attack against white-box cryptography, which exploits the data-dependency of the target implementation. We demonstrate that our approach provides substantial complexity improvements over the existing attacks. Finally, we showcase this new technique by breaking the three winning AES-128 white-box implementations from WhibOx 2019 white-box cryptography competition.




How to Cite

Goubin, L., Rivain, M., & Wang, J. (2020). Defeating State-of-the-Art White-Box Countermeasures with Advanced Gray-Box Attacks. IACR Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2020(3), 454–482.