Don’t Forget Pairing-Friendly Curves with Odd Prime Embedding Degrees
Keywords:Pairing-friendly curves, BW13-310, high-performance software implementations
Pairing-friendly curves with odd prime embedding degrees at the 128-bit security level, such as BW13-310 and BW19-286, sparked interest in the field of public-key cryptography as small sizes of the prime fields. However, compared to mainstream pairing-friendly curves at the same security level, i.e., BN446 and BLS12-446, the performance of pairing computations on BW13-310 and BW19-286 is usually considered inefficient. In this paper we investigate high performance software implementations of pairing computation on BW13-310 and corresponding building blocks used in pairing-based protocols, including hashing, group exponentiations and membership testings. Firstly, we propose efficient explicit formulas for pairing computation on this curve. Moreover, we also exploit the state-of-art techniques to implement hashing in G1 and G2, group exponentiations and membership testings. In particular, for exponentiations in G2 and GT , we present new optimizations to speed up computational efficiency. Our implementation results on a 64-bit processor show that the gap in the performance of pairing computation between BW13-310 and BN446 (resp. BLS12-446) is only up to 4.9% (resp. 26%). More importantly, compared to BN446 and BLS12-446, BW13-310 is about 109.1% − 227.3%, 100% − 192.6%, 24.5%−108.5% and 68.2%−145.5% faster in terms of hashing to G1, exponentiations in G1 and GT , and membership testing for GT , respectively. These results reveal that BW13-310 would be an interesting candidate in pairing-based cryptographic protocols.
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Copyright (c) 2023 Yu Dai, Fangguo Zhang, Chang-an Zhao
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.